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# All but 1 of these packages can be easily installed from CRAN.
# However it was harder to install the showtext package. On Mac, I did this:
# installed 'homebrew' using Terminal: ruby -e "$(curl -fsSL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Homebrew/install/master/install)"
# installed 'libpng' using Terminal: brew install libpng
# installed 'showtext' in R using: devtools::install_github("yixuan/showtext")
library(showtext)
library(brms)
library(bayesplot)
library(tidyverse)
library(gridExtra)
library(kableExtra)
library(bayestestR)
library(tidybayes)
library(cowplot)
library(car)
source("code/helper_functions.R")
# set up nice font for figure
nice_font <- "Lora"
font_add_google(name = nice_font, family = nice_font, regular.wt = 400, bold.wt = 700)
showtext_auto()
exp1_treatments <- c("Intact control", "Ringers", "Heat-treated LPS", "LPS")
durations <- read_csv("data/data_collection_sheets/experiment_durations.csv") %>%
filter(experiment == 1) %>% select(-experiment)
durations <- bind_rows(durations, tibble(hive = "SkyLab", observation_time_minutes = 90))
outcome_tally <- read_csv(file = "data/clean_data/experiment_1_outcome_tally.csv") %>%
mutate(outcome = replace(outcome, outcome == "Left of own volition", "Left voluntarily")) %>%
mutate(outcome = factor(outcome, levels = c("Stayed inside the hive", "Left voluntarily", "Forced out")),
treatment = factor(treatment, levels = exp1_treatments))
# Re-formatted version of the same data, where each row is an individual bee. We need this format to run the brms model.
data_for_categorical_model <- outcome_tally %>%
mutate(id = 1:n()) %>%
split(.$id) %>%
map(function(x){
if(x$n[1] == 0) return(NULL)
data.frame(
treatment = x$treatment[1],
hive = x$hive[1],
colour = x$colour[1],
outcome = rep(x$outcome[1], x$n))
}) %>% do.call("rbind", .) %>% as_tibble() %>%
arrange(hive, treatment) %>%
mutate(outcome_numeric = as.numeric(outcome),
hive = as.character(hive),
treatment = factor(treatment, levels = exp1_treatments)) %>%
left_join(durations, by = "hive") %>%
mutate(hive = C(factor(hive), sum)) # use sum coding for the factor levels of "hive"
Click the three tabs to see each table.
sample_sizes <- data_for_categorical_model %>%
group_by(treatment) %>%
summarise(n = n(), .groups = "drop")
sample_sizes %>%
kable() %>% kable_styling(full_width = FALSE)
treatment | n |
---|---|
Intact control | 321 |
Ringers | 153 |
Heat-treated LPS | 186 |
LPS | 182 |
data_for_categorical_model %>%
group_by(hive, treatment) %>%
summarise(n = n(), .groups = "drop") %>%
spread(treatment, n) %>%
kable() %>% kable_styling(full_width = FALSE)
hive | Intact control | Ringers | Heat-treated LPS | LPS |
---|---|---|---|---|
Garden | 77 | 41 | 34 | 37 |
SkyLab | 105 | NA | 58 | 43 |
Zoology | 106 | 80 | 67 | 67 |
Zoology_2 | 33 | 32 | 27 | 35 |
outcome_tally %>%
select(-colour) %>%
spread(outcome, n) %>%
kable(digits = 3) %>% kable_styling(full_width = FALSE)
hive | treatment | Stayed inside the hive | Left voluntarily | Forced out |
---|---|---|---|---|
Garden | Intact control | 75 | 0 | 2 |
Garden | Ringers | 41 | 0 | 0 |
Garden | Heat-treated LPS | 34 | 0 | 0 |
Garden | LPS | 37 | 0 | 0 |
SkyLab | Intact control | 102 | 3 | 0 |
SkyLab | Heat-treated LPS | 47 | 6 | 5 |
SkyLab | LPS | 35 | 6 | 2 |
Zoology | Intact control | 105 | 0 | 1 |
Zoology | Ringers | 74 | 1 | 5 |
Zoology | Heat-treated LPS | 59 | 1 | 7 |
Zoology | LPS | 60 | 2 | 5 |
Zoology_2 | Intact control | 24 | 1 | 8 |
Zoology_2 | Ringers | 23 | 1 | 8 |
Zoology_2 | Heat-treated LPS | 16 | 1 | 10 |
Zoology_2 | LPS | 21 | 2 | 12 |
all_hives <- outcome_tally %>%
group_by(treatment, outcome) %>%
summarise(n = sum(n), .groups = "drop") %>%
ungroup() %>% mutate(hive = "All hives")
pd <- position_dodge(.3)
outcome_tally %>%
group_by(treatment, outcome) %>%
summarise(n = sum(n), .groups = "drop") %>% mutate() %>%
group_by(treatment) %>%
mutate(total_n = sum(n),
percent = 100 * n / sum(n),
SE = sqrt(total_n * (percent/100) * (1-(percent/100)))) %>%
ungroup() %>%
mutate(lowerCI = map_dbl(1:n(), ~ 100 * binom.test(n[.x], total_n[.x])$conf.int[1]),
upperCI = map_dbl(1:n(), ~ 100 * binom.test(n[.x], total_n[.x])$conf.int[2])) %>%
filter(outcome != "Stayed inside the hive") %>%
ggplot(aes(treatment, percent, fill = outcome)) +
geom_errorbar(aes(ymin=lowerCI, ymax=upperCI), position = pd, width = 0) +
geom_point(stat = "identity", position = pd, colour = "grey15", pch = 21, size = 4) +
scale_fill_brewer(palette = "Pastel2", name = "Outcome", direction = -1) +
xlab("Treatment") + ylab("% bees (\u00B1 95% CIs)") +
theme_bw(20) +
theme(legend.position = "top",
text = element_text(family = nice_font)) +
coord_flip()
The multinomial model below is not commonly used, though we believe it is the right choice for this particular experiment (e.g. because it can model a three-item categorical response variable, and it can incorporate priors). However during peer review, we were asked whether the results were similar when using standard statistical methods. To address this question, we here present a frequentist Generalised Linear Model (GLM; using base::glm
), which tests the null hypothesis that the proportion of bees exiting the hive (i.e. the proportion leaving voluntarily plus those that were forced out) is equal between treatment groups and hives. The model uses the quasibinomial family, since this family is more robust to overdispersion than the binomial family (though testing revealed both families gave qualitatively identical results).
The model’s qualitative results are similar to those from the multinomial model: bees treated with LPS (either kind) left the hive more often than intact controls, and there were differences between hives in the proportion of bees leaving.
glm_dat <- outcome_tally %>%
group_by(hive, treatment, outcome) %>%
summarise(n = sum(n)) %>%
mutate(left = ifelse(outcome == "Stayed inside the hive", "stayed_inside" ,"left_hive")) %>%
group_by(hive, treatment, left) %>%
summarise(n = sum(n)) %>%
spread(left, n)
simple_model <- glm(
cbind(left_hive, stayed_inside) ~ treatment + hive,
data = glm_dat,
family = "quasibinomial")
The reference level for treatment
is the Intact Control, and the reference for hive
is the hive named Garden.
summary(simple_model)
Call:
glm(formula = cbind(left_hive, stayed_inside) ~ treatment + hive,
family = "quasibinomial", data = glm_dat)
Deviance Residuals:
Min 1Q Median 3Q Max
-1.5002 -1.0014 -0.2999 0.4537 1.8667
Coefficients:
Estimate Std. Error t value Pr(>|t|)
(Intercept) -5.3210 1.0230 -5.201 0.000821 ***
treatmentRingers 0.6951 0.5605 1.240 0.250091
treatmentHeat-treated LPS 1.3318 0.4693 2.838 0.021884 *
treatmentLPS 1.2319 0.4753 2.592 0.032023 *
hiveSkyLab 2.4051 1.0194 2.359 0.046012 *
hiveZoology 1.8803 1.0122 1.858 0.100302
hiveZoology_2 3.8046 1.0011 3.800 0.005234 **
---
Signif. codes: 0 '***' 0.001 '**' 0.01 '*' 0.05 '.' 0.1 ' ' 1
(Dispersion parameter for quasibinomial family taken to be 1.840969)
Null deviance: 116.658 on 14 degrees of freedom
Residual deviance: 13.318 on 8 degrees of freedom
AIC: NA
Number of Fisher Scoring iterations: 5
Anova(simple_model, test = "LR", Type = "II")
Analysis of Deviance Table (Type II tests)
Response: cbind(left_hive, stayed_inside)
LR Chisq Df Pr(>Chisq)
treatment 10.917 3 0.01219 *
hive 42.607 3 2.982e-09 ***
---
Signif. codes: 0 '***' 0.001 '**' 0.01 '*' 0.05 '.' 0.1 ' ' 1
Fit the multinomial logistic models, with a 3-item response variable describing what happened to each bee introduced to the hive: stayed inside, left voluntarily, or forced out by the other workers.
if(!file.exists("output/exp1_model.rds")){
exp1_model <- brm(
outcome_numeric ~ treatment + hive,
data = data_for_categorical_model,
prior = c(set_prior("normal(0, 3)", class = "b", dpar = "mu2"),
set_prior("normal(0, 3)", class = "b", dpar = "mu3")),
family = "categorical",
chains = 4, cores = 4, iter = 5000, seed = 1)
saveRDS(exp1_model, "output/exp1_model.rds")
}
exp1_model <- readRDS("output/exp1_model.rds")
This plot shows ten predictions from the posterior (pale blue) as well as the original data (dark blue), for the three categorical outcomes (1: stayed inside, 2: left voluntarily, 3: forced out). The predicted number of bees in each outcome category is similar to the real data, illustrating that the model is able to recapitulate the original data fairly closely (a necessary requirement for making inferences from the model).
pp_check(exp1_model, type = "hist", nsamples = 8)
Version | Author | Date |
---|---|---|
9ebe5df | lukeholman | 2021-01-12 |
treatment + hive
modelsummary(exp1_model)
Family: categorical
Links: mu2 = logit; mu3 = logit
Formula: outcome_numeric ~ treatment + hive
Data: data_for_categorical_model (Number of observations: 842)
Samples: 4 chains, each with iter = 5000; warmup = 2500; thin = 1;
total post-warmup samples = 10000
Population-Level Effects:
Estimate Est.Error l-95% CI u-95% CI Rhat Bulk_ESS Tail_ESS
mu2_Intercept -5.43 0.71 -6.97 -4.19 1.00 4040 4943
mu3_Intercept -3.66 0.36 -4.40 -3.01 1.00 4982 5165
mu2_treatmentRingers 0.67 0.95 -1.33 2.45 1.00 7217 6785
mu2_treatmentHeatMtreatedLPS 1.29 0.62 0.12 2.55 1.00 6951 6273
mu2_treatmentLPS 1.68 0.60 0.55 2.88 1.00 6480 6007
mu2_hive1 -3.22 1.48 -6.64 -0.94 1.00 3461 3562
mu2_hive2 1.90 0.58 0.91 3.17 1.00 3908 4321
mu2_hive3 -0.08 0.64 -1.28 1.27 1.00 4203 4737
mu3_treatmentRingers 0.56 0.45 -0.31 1.46 1.00 6903 7359
mu3_treatmentHeatMtreatedLPS 1.31 0.40 0.55 2.12 1.00 6391 7223
mu3_treatmentLPS 0.97 0.41 0.19 1.77 1.00 6812 6626
mu3_hive1 -1.76 0.58 -3.07 -0.79 1.00 4773 4078
mu3_hive2 -0.42 0.36 -1.15 0.31 1.00 6117 6236
mu3_hive3 0.07 0.28 -0.47 0.65 1.00 6219 5669
Samples were drawn using sampling(NUTS). For each parameter, Bulk_ESS
and Tail_ESS are effective sample size measures, and Rhat is the potential
scale reduction factor on split chains (at convergence, Rhat = 1).
brms
output for Table S1The code chunk below wrangles the raw output of the summary()
function for brms
models into a more readable table of results, and also adds ‘Bayesian p-values’ (i.e. the posterior probability that the true effect size has the same sign as the reported effect).
Table S1: Table summarising the posterior estimates of each fixed effect in the best-fitting model of Experiment 1. This was a multinomial model with three possible outcomes (stay inside, leave voluntarily, be forced out), and so there are two parameter estimates for the intercept and for each predictor in the model. ‘Treatment’ is a fixed factor with four levels, and the effects shown here are expressed relative to the ‘Intact control’ group. ‘Hive’ was also a fixed factor with four levels; unlike for treatment, we modelled hive using deviation coding, such that the intercept term represents the mean across all hives (in the intact control treatment), and the three hive terms represent the deviation from this mean for three of the four hives. The \(p\) column gives the posterior probability that the true effect size is opposite in sign to what is reported in the Estimate column, similarly to a \(p\)-value.
tableS1 <- get_fixed_effects_with_p_values(exp1_model) %>%
mutate(mu = map_chr(str_extract_all(Parameter, "mu[:digit:]"), ~ .x[1]),
Parameter = str_remove_all(Parameter, "mu[:digit:]_"),
Parameter = str_replace_all(Parameter, "treatment", "Treatment: "),
Parameter = str_replace_all(Parameter, "HeatMtreatedLPS", "Heat-treated LPS")) %>%
arrange(mu) %>%
select(-mu, -Rhat, -Bulk_ESS, -Tail_ESS) %>%
mutate(PP = format(round(PP, 4), nsmall = 4))
names(tableS1)[3:5] <- c("Est. Error", "Lower 95% CI", "Upper 95% CI")
saveRDS(tableS1, file = "figures/tableS1.rds")
tableS1 %>%
kable(digits = 3) %>%
kable_styling(full_width = FALSE) %>%
pack_rows("% bees leaving voluntarily", 1, 7) %>%
pack_rows("% bees forced out", 8, 14)
Parameter | Estimate | Est. Error | Lower 95% CI | Upper 95% CI | PP | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
% bees leaving voluntarily | ||||||
Intercept | -5.429 | 0.712 | -6.972 | -4.189 | 0.0000 | *** |
Treatment: Ringers | 0.669 | 0.946 | -1.332 | 2.453 | 0.2282 | |
Treatment: Heat-treated LPS | 1.294 | 0.618 | 0.121 | 2.551 | 0.0162 | * |
Treatment: LPS | 1.679 | 0.600 | 0.554 | 2.876 | 0.0021 | ** |
hive1 | -3.216 | 1.482 | -6.636 | -0.942 | 0.0003 | *** |
hive2 | 1.900 | 0.582 | 0.910 | 3.170 | 0.0000 | *** |
hive3 | -0.082 | 0.643 | -1.278 | 1.266 | 0.4311 | |
% bees forced out | ||||||
Intercept | -3.656 | 0.359 | -4.403 | -3.005 | 0.0000 | *** |
Treatment: Ringers | 0.564 | 0.449 | -0.311 | 1.457 | 0.1062 | |
Treatment: Heat-treated LPS | 1.308 | 0.400 | 0.545 | 2.116 | 0.0004 | *** |
Treatment: LPS | 0.973 | 0.410 | 0.193 | 1.775 | 0.0068 | ** |
hive1 | -1.761 | 0.581 | -3.069 | -0.789 | 0.0000 | *** |
hive2 | -0.421 | 0.365 | -1.151 | 0.305 | 0.1194 | |
hive3 | 0.069 | 0.282 | -0.469 | 0.646 | 0.4161 |
get_posterior_preds <- function(focal_hive){
new <- expand.grid(treatment = levels(data_for_categorical_model$treatment),
hive = focal_hive)
preds <- fitted(exp1_model, newdata = new, summary = FALSE)
dimnames(preds) <- list(NULL, new[,1], NULL)
rbind(
as.data.frame(preds[,, 1]) %>%
mutate(outcome = "Stayed inside the hive", posterior_sample = 1:n()),
as.data.frame(preds[,, 2]) %>%
mutate(outcome = "Left voluntarily", posterior_sample = 1:n()),
as.data.frame(preds[,, 3]) %>%
mutate(outcome = "Forced out", posterior_sample = 1:n())) %>%
gather(treatment, prop, `Intact control`, Ringers, `Heat-treated LPS`, LPS) %>%
mutate(outcome = factor(outcome,
c("Stayed inside the hive", "Left voluntarily", "Forced out")),
treatment = factor(treatment,
c("Intact control", "Ringers", "Heat-treated LPS", "LPS"))) %>%
as_tibble() %>% arrange(treatment, outcome)
}
# plotting data for panel A: one specific hive
plotting_data <- get_posterior_preds(focal_hive = "Zoology")
# stats data: for panel B and the table of stats
stats_data <- get_posterior_preds(focal_hive = NA)
cols <- RColorBrewer::brewer.pal(3, "Set2")
dot_plot <- plotting_data %>%
left_join(sample_sizes, by = "treatment") %>%
arrange(treatment) %>%
mutate(outcome = str_replace_all(outcome, "Stayed inside the hive", "Stayed inside"),
outcome = factor(outcome, c("Stayed inside", "Left voluntarily", "Forced out")),
treatment = factor(paste(treatment, "\n(n = ", n, ")", sep = ""),
unique(paste(treatment, "\n(n = ", n, ")", sep = "")))) %>%
ggplot(aes(100 * prop, treatment)) +
stat_dotsh(quantiles = 100, fill = "grey40", colour = "grey40") +
stat_pointintervalh(aes(colour = outcome, fill = outcome),
.width = c(0.5, 0.95),
position = position_nudge(y = -0.07),
point_colour = "grey26", pch = 21, stroke = 0.4) +
scale_colour_manual(values = cols) +
scale_fill_manual(values = cols) +
facet_wrap( ~ outcome, scales = "free_x") +
xlab("% bees (posterior estimate)") + ylab("Treatment") +
theme_bw() +
coord_cartesian(ylim=c(1.4, 4)) +
theme(
text = element_text(family = nice_font),
strip.background = element_rect(fill = "#eff0f1"),
panel.grid.major.y = element_blank(),
legend.position = "none"
)
# positive effect = odds of this outcome are higher for trt2 than trt1 (put control as trt1)
get_log_odds <- function(trt1, trt2){
log((trt2 / (1 - trt2) / (trt1 / (1 - trt1))))
}
LOR <- stats_data %>%
spread(treatment, prop) %>%
mutate(LOR_intact_Ringers = get_log_odds(`Intact control`, Ringers),
LOR_intact_heat = get_log_odds(`Intact control`, `Heat-treated LPS`),
LOR_intact_LPS = get_log_odds(`Intact control`, LPS),
LOR_Ringers_heat = get_log_odds(Ringers, `Heat-treated LPS`),
LOR_Ringers_LPS = get_log_odds(Ringers, LPS),
LOR_heat_LPS = get_log_odds(`Heat-treated LPS`, LPS)) %>%
select(posterior_sample, outcome, starts_with("LOR")) %>%
gather(LOR, comparison, starts_with("LOR")) %>%
mutate(LOR = str_remove_all(LOR, "LOR_"),
LOR = str_replace_all(LOR, "heat_LPS", "LPS\n(Heat-treated LPS)"),
LOR = str_replace_all(LOR, "Ringers_LPS", "LPS\n(Ringers)"),
LOR = str_replace_all(LOR, "Ringers_heat", "Heat-treated LPS\n(Ringers)"),
LOR = str_replace_all(LOR, "intact_Ringers", "Ringers\n(Intact control)"),
LOR = str_replace_all(LOR, "intact_heat", "Heat-treated LPS\n(Intact control)"),
LOR = str_replace_all(LOR, "intact_LPS", "LPS\n(Intact control)"))
levs <- LOR$LOR %>% unique() %>% sort()
LOR$LOR <- factor(LOR$LOR, rev(levs[c(3,5,4,2,1,6)]))
LOR_plot <- LOR %>%
mutate(outcome = str_replace_all(outcome, "Stayed inside the hive", "Stayed inside"),
outcome = factor(outcome, levels = rev(c("Forced out", "Left voluntarily", "Stayed inside")))) %>%
ggplot(aes(y = comparison, x = LOR, colour = outcome)) +
geom_hline(yintercept = 0, size = 0.3, colour = "grey20") +
geom_hline(yintercept = log(2), linetype = 2, size = 0.6, colour = "grey") +
geom_hline(yintercept = -log(2), linetype = 2, size = 0.6, colour = "grey") +
stat_pointinterval(aes(colour = outcome, fill = outcome),
.width = c(0.5, 0.95),
position = position_dodge(0.6),
point_colour = "grey26", pch = 21, stroke = 0.4) +
scale_colour_manual(values = cols) +
scale_fill_manual(values = cols) +
ylab("Effect size (posterior log odds ratio)") +
xlab("Treatment (reference)") +
theme_bw() +
coord_flip() +
theme(
text = element_text(family = nice_font),
panel.grid.major.y = element_blank(),
legend.position = "none"
)
p <- cowplot::plot_grid(
plotlist = list(dot_plot, LOR_plot),
labels = c("A", "B"),
nrow = 1, align = 'v', axis = 'l',
rel_heights = c(1.4, 1))
ggsave(plot = p, filename = "figures/fig1.pdf", height = 3.4, width = 9)
p
Figure 1: Panel A shows the posterior estimate of the mean % bees staying inside the hive (left), leaving voluntarily (middle), or being forced out (right), for each of the four treatments. The quantile dot plot shows 100 approximately equally likely estimates of the true % bees, and the horizontal bars show the median and the 50% and 95% credible intervals of the posterior distribution. Panel B gives the posterior estimates of the effect size of each treatment, relative to one of the other treatments (the name of which appears in parentheses), and expressed as a log odds ratio (LOR). Positive LOR indicates that the % bees showing this particular outcome is higher in the treatment than the control; for example, more bees left voluntarily (green) or were forced out (orange) in the LPS treatment than in the intact control. The dashed lines mark \(LOR = 0\), indicating no effect, and \(LOR = \pm log(2)\), i.e. the point at which the odds are twice as high in one treatment as the other.
This section calculates the posterior difference in treatment group means, in order to perform some null hypothesis testing, calculate effect size (as a log odds ratio), and calculate the 95% credible intervals on the effect size.
The following code chunks perform planned contrasts between pairs of treatments that we consider important to the biological hypotheses under test. For example the contrast between the LPS treatment and the Ringers treatment provides information about the effect of immmune stimulation, while the Ringers - Intact Control contrast provides information about the effect of wounding in the absence of LPS.
# Helper function to summarise a posterior, including calculating
# p_direction, i.e. the posterior probability that the effect size has the stated direction,
# which has a similar interpretation to a one-tailed p-value
my_summary <- function(df, columns) {
lapply(columns, function(x){
p <- 1 - (df %>% pull(!! x) %>%
bayestestR::p_direction() %>% as.numeric())
df %>% pull(!! x) %>% posterior_summary() %>% as_tibble() %>%
mutate(PP = p) %>% mutate(Metric = x) %>% select(Metric, everything()) %>%
mutate(` ` = ifelse(PP < 0.1, "~", ""),
` ` = replace(` `, PP < 0.05, "\\*"),
` ` = replace(` `, PP < 0.01, "**"),
` ` = replace(` `, PP < 0.001, "***"),
` ` = replace(` `, PP == " ", ""))
}) %>% do.call("rbind", .)
}
# Helper to make one unit of the big stats table
make_stats_table <- function(
dat, groupA, groupB, comparison, metric){
output <- dat %>%
spread(treatment, prop) %>%
mutate(
metric_here = 100 * (!! enquo(groupB) - !! enquo(groupA)),
`Log odds ratio` = get_log_odds(!! enquo(groupA), !! enquo(groupB))) %>%
my_summary(c("metric_here", "Log odds ratio")) %>%
mutate(PP = c(" ", format(round(PP[2], 4), nsmall = 4)),
` ` = c(" ", ` `[2]),
Comparison = comparison) %>%
select(Comparison, everything()) %>%
mutate(Metric = replace(Metric, Metric == "metric_here", metric))
names(output)[names(output) == "metric_here"] <- metric
output
}
stayed_inside_stats_table <- rbind(
stats_data %>%
filter(outcome == "Stayed inside the hive") %>%
make_stats_table(`Heat-treated LPS`, `LPS`, "LPS (Heat-treated LPS)",
metric = "Difference in % bees staying inside"),
stats_data %>%
filter(outcome == "Stayed inside the hive") %>%
make_stats_table(`Ringers`, `LPS`, "LPS (Ringers)",
metric = "Difference in % bees staying inside"),
stats_data %>%
filter(outcome == "Stayed inside the hive") %>%
make_stats_table(`Intact control`, `LPS`, "LPS (Intact control)",
metric = "Difference in % bees staying inside"),
stats_data %>%
filter(outcome == "Stayed inside the hive") %>%
make_stats_table(`Ringers`, `Heat-treated LPS`, "Heat-treated LPS (Ringers)",
metric = "Difference in % bees staying inside"),
stats_data %>%
filter(outcome == "Stayed inside the hive") %>%
make_stats_table(`Intact control`, `Heat-treated LPS`, "Heat-treated LPS (Intact control)",
metric = "Difference in % bees staying inside"),
stats_data %>%
filter(outcome == "Stayed inside the hive") %>%
make_stats_table(`Intact control`, `Ringers`, "Ringers (Intact control)",
metric = "Difference in % bees staying inside")
) %>% as_tibble()
stayed_inside_stats_table[c(2,4,6,8,10,12), 1] <- " "
voluntary_stats_table <- rbind(
stats_data %>%
filter(outcome == "Left voluntarily") %>%
make_stats_table(`Heat-treated LPS`, `LPS`,
"LPS (Heat-treated LPS)",
metric = "Difference in % bees leaving voluntarily"),
stats_data %>%
filter(outcome == "Left voluntarily") %>%
make_stats_table(`Ringers`, `LPS`,
"LPS (Ringers)",
metric = "Difference in % bees leaving voluntarily"),
stats_data %>%
filter(outcome == "Left voluntarily") %>%
make_stats_table(`Intact control`, `LPS`,
"LPS (Intact control)",
metric = "Difference in % bees leaving voluntarily"),
stats_data %>%
filter(outcome == "Left voluntarily") %>%
make_stats_table(`Ringers`, `Heat-treated LPS`,
"Heat-treated LPS (Ringers)",
metric = "Difference in % bees leaving voluntarily"),
stats_data %>%
filter(outcome == "Left voluntarily") %>%
make_stats_table(`Intact control`, `Heat-treated LPS`,
"Heat-treated LPS (Intact control)",
metric = "Difference in % bees leaving voluntarily"),
stats_data %>%
filter(outcome == "Left voluntarily") %>%
make_stats_table(`Intact control`, `Ringers`,
"Ringers (Intact control)",
metric = "Difference in % bees leaving voluntarily")
) %>% as_tibble()
voluntary_stats_table[c(2,4,6,8,10,12), 1] <- " "
forced_out_stats_table <- rbind(
stats_data %>%
filter(outcome == "Forced out") %>%
make_stats_table(`Heat-treated LPS`, `LPS`,
"LPS (Heat-treated LPS)",
metric = "Difference in % bees forced out"),
stats_data %>%
filter(outcome == "Forced out") %>%
make_stats_table(`Ringers`, `LPS`,
"LPS (Ringers)",
metric = "Difference in % bees forced out"),
stats_data %>%
filter(outcome == "Forced out") %>%
make_stats_table(`Intact control`, `LPS`,
"LPS (Intact control)",
metric = "Difference in % bees forced out"),
stats_data %>%
filter(outcome == "Forced out") %>%
make_stats_table(`Ringers`, `Heat-treated LPS`,
"Heat-treated LPS (Ringers)",
metric = "Difference in % bees forced out"),
stats_data %>%
filter(outcome == "Forced out") %>%
make_stats_table(`Intact control`, `Heat-treated LPS`,
"Heat-treated LPS (Intact control)",
metric = "Difference in % bees forced out"),
stats_data %>%
filter(outcome == "Left voluntarily") %>%
make_stats_table(`Intact control`, `Ringers`, "Ringers (Intact control)",
metric = "Difference in % bees forced out")
) %>% as_tibble()
forced_out_stats_table[c(2,4,6,8,10,12), 1] <- " "
Table S2: This table gives statistics associated with each of the contrasts plotted in Figure 1B. Each pair of rows gives the absolute effect size (i.e. the difference in % bees) and standardised effect size (as log odds ratio; LOR) for the focal treatment, relative to the treatment shown in parentheses, for one of the three possible outcomes (stayed inside, left voluntarily, or forced out). A LOR of \(|log(x)|\) indicates that the outcome is \(x\) times more frequent in one treatment compared to the other, e.g. \(log(2) = 0.69\) and \(log(0.5) = -0.69\) correspond to a two-fold difference in frequency. The \(PP\) column gives the posterior probability that the true effect size has the same sign as is shown in the Estimate column; this metric has a similar interpretation to a one-tailed \(p\) value in frequentist statistics.
tableS2 <- bind_rows(
stayed_inside_stats_table,
voluntary_stats_table,
forced_out_stats_table)
saveRDS(tableS2, file = "figures/tableS2.rds")
tableS2 %>%
kable(digits = 2) %>% kable_styling(full_width = FALSE) %>%
row_spec(seq(2,36,by=2), extra_css = "border-bottom: solid;") %>%
pack_rows("% bees staying inside", 1, 12) %>%
pack_rows("% bees leaving voluntarily", 13, 24) %>%
pack_rows("% bees forced out", 25, 36)
Comparison | Metric | Estimate | Est.Error | Q2.5 | Q97.5 | PP | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
% bees staying inside | |||||||
LPS (Heat-treated LPS) | Difference in % bees staying inside | 1.57 | 2.85 | -3.82 | 7.33 | ||
Log odds ratio | 0.18 | 0.33 | -0.45 | 0.83 | 0.2911 | ||
LPS (Ringers) | Difference in % bees staying inside | -3.31 | 2.59 | -8.60 | 1.62 | ||
Log odds ratio | -0.51 | 0.39 | -1.28 | 0.24 | 0.0895 | ~ | |
LPS (Intact control) | Difference in % bees staying inside | -5.83 | 2.24 | -10.66 | -1.93 | ||
Log odds ratio | -1.11 | 0.36 | -1.81 | -0.42 | 8e-04 | *** | |
Heat-treated LPS (Ringers) | Difference in % bees staying inside | -4.88 | 2.79 | -10.53 | 0.44 | ||
Log odds ratio | -0.70 | 0.39 | -1.45 | 0.06 | 0.0367 | * | |
Heat-treated LPS (Intact control) | Difference in % bees staying inside | -7.40 | 2.49 | -12.75 | -3.03 | ||
Log odds ratio | -1.30 | 0.35 | -2.00 | -0.62 | 1e-04 | *** | |
Ringers (Intact control) | Difference in % bees staying inside | -2.52 | 1.91 | -6.72 | 0.75 | ||
Log odds ratio | -0.60 | 0.41 | -1.43 | 0.21 | 0.0721 | ~ | |
% bees leaving voluntarily | |||||||
LPS (Heat-treated LPS) | Difference in % bees leaving voluntarily | 0.79 | 1.13 | -1.21 | 3.46 | ||
Log odds ratio | 0.41 | 0.51 | -0.60 | 1.42 | 0.2121 | ||
LPS (Ringers) | Difference in % bees leaving voluntarily | 1.36 | 1.38 | -1.10 | 4.47 | ||
Log odds ratio | 0.99 | 0.87 | -0.56 | 2.92 | 0.1183 | ||
LPS (Intact control) | Difference in % bees leaving voluntarily | 1.97 | 1.22 | 0.30 | 4.95 | ||
Log odds ratio | 1.64 | 0.60 | 0.51 | 2.84 | 0.0025 | ** | |
Heat-treated LPS (Ringers) | Difference in % bees leaving voluntarily | 0.57 | 1.19 | -1.83 | 3.16 | ||
Log odds ratio | 0.58 | 0.91 | -1.08 | 2.53 | 0.2668 | ||
Heat-treated LPS (Intact control) | Difference in % bees leaving voluntarily | 1.18 | 0.89 | 0.03 | 3.43 | ||
Log odds ratio | 1.23 | 0.62 | 0.05 | 2.47 | 0.0213 | * | |
Ringers (Intact control) | Difference in % bees leaving voluntarily | 0.61 | 0.92 | -0.65 | 2.95 | ||
Log odds ratio | 0.65 | 0.95 | -1.36 | 2.43 | 0.2363 | ||
% bees forced out | |||||||
LPS (Heat-treated LPS) | Difference in % bees forced out | -2.36 | 2.60 | -7.79 | 2.48 | ||
Log odds ratio | -0.34 | 0.37 | -1.07 | 0.37 | 0.1843 | ||
LPS (Ringers) | Difference in % bees forced out | 1.95 | 2.18 | -2.21 | 6.35 | ||
Log odds ratio | 0.39 | 0.42 | -0.41 | 1.22 | 0.1741 | ||
LPS (Intact control) | Difference in % bees forced out | 3.86 | 1.93 | 0.61 | 8.12 | ||
Log odds ratio | 0.95 | 0.41 | 0.17 | 1.75 | 0.0078 | ** | |
Heat-treated LPS (Ringers) | Difference in % bees forced out | 4.31 | 2.54 | -0.38 | 9.60 | ||
Log odds ratio | 0.74 | 0.41 | -0.07 | 1.55 | 0.0374 | * | |
Heat-treated LPS (Intact control) | Difference in % bees forced out | 6.22 | 2.36 | 2.18 | 11.43 | ||
Log odds ratio | 1.29 | 0.40 | 0.53 | 2.10 | 5e-04 | *** | |
Ringers (Intact control) | Difference in % bees forced out | 0.61 | 0.92 | -0.65 | 2.95 | ||
Log odds ratio | 0.65 | 0.95 | -1.36 | 2.43 | 0.2363 |
sessionInfo()
R version 4.0.3 (2020-10-10)
Platform: x86_64-apple-darwin17.0 (64-bit)
Running under: macOS Catalina 10.15.7
Matrix products: default
BLAS: /Library/Frameworks/R.framework/Versions/4.0/Resources/lib/libRblas.dylib
LAPACK: /Library/Frameworks/R.framework/Versions/4.0/Resources/lib/libRlapack.dylib
locale:
[1] en_GB.UTF-8/en_GB.UTF-8/en_GB.UTF-8/C/en_GB.UTF-8/en_GB.UTF-8
attached base packages:
[1] stats graphics grDevices utils datasets methods base
other attached packages:
[1] car_3.0-8 carData_3.0-4 cowplot_1.0.0 tidybayes_2.0.3 bayestestR_0.6.0 kableExtra_1.1.0
[7] gridExtra_2.3 forcats_0.5.0 stringr_1.4.0 dplyr_1.0.0 purrr_0.3.4 readr_1.3.1
[13] tidyr_1.1.0 tibble_3.0.1 ggplot2_3.3.2 tidyverse_1.3.0 bayesplot_1.7.2 brms_2.14.4
[19] Rcpp_1.0.4.6 showtext_0.9-1 showtextdb_3.0 sysfonts_0.8.2 workflowr_1.6.2
loaded via a namespace (and not attached):
[1] readxl_1.3.1 backports_1.1.7 plyr_1.8.6 igraph_1.2.5 svUnit_1.0.3
[6] splines_4.0.3 crosstalk_1.1.0.1 TH.data_1.0-10 rstantools_2.1.1 inline_0.3.15
[11] digest_0.6.25 htmltools_0.5.0 rsconnect_0.8.16 fansi_0.4.1 magrittr_2.0.1
[16] openxlsx_4.1.5 modelr_0.1.8 RcppParallel_5.0.1 matrixStats_0.56.0 xts_0.12-0
[21] sandwich_2.5-1 prettyunits_1.1.1 colorspace_1.4-1 blob_1.2.1 rvest_0.3.5
[26] haven_2.3.1 xfun_0.19 callr_3.4.3 crayon_1.3.4 jsonlite_1.7.0
[31] lme4_1.1-23 survival_3.2-7 zoo_1.8-8 glue_1.4.2 gtable_0.3.0
[36] emmeans_1.4.7 webshot_0.5.2 V8_3.4.0 pkgbuild_1.0.8 rstan_2.21.2
[41] abind_1.4-5 scales_1.1.1 mvtnorm_1.1-0 DBI_1.1.0 miniUI_0.1.1.1
[46] viridisLite_0.3.0 xtable_1.8-4 foreign_0.8-80 stats4_4.0.3 StanHeaders_2.21.0-3
[51] DT_0.13 htmlwidgets_1.5.1 httr_1.4.1 threejs_0.3.3 RColorBrewer_1.1-2
[56] arrayhelpers_1.1-0 ellipsis_0.3.1 farver_2.0.3 pkgconfig_2.0.3 loo_2.3.1
[61] dbplyr_1.4.4 labeling_0.3 tidyselect_1.1.0 rlang_0.4.6 reshape2_1.4.4
[66] later_1.0.0 munsell_0.5.0 cellranger_1.1.0 tools_4.0.3 cli_2.0.2
[71] generics_0.0.2 broom_0.5.6 ggridges_0.5.2 evaluate_0.14 fastmap_1.0.1
[76] yaml_2.2.1 processx_3.4.2 knitr_1.30 fs_1.4.1 zip_2.0.4
[81] nlme_3.1-149 whisker_0.4 mime_0.9 projpred_2.0.2 xml2_1.3.2
[86] compiler_4.0.3 shinythemes_1.1.2 rstudioapi_0.11 curl_4.3 gamm4_0.2-6
[91] reprex_0.3.0 statmod_1.4.34 stringi_1.5.3 highr_0.8 ps_1.3.3
[96] Brobdingnag_1.2-6 lattice_0.20-41 Matrix_1.2-18 nloptr_1.2.2.1 markdown_1.1
[101] shinyjs_1.1 vctrs_0.3.0 pillar_1.4.4 lifecycle_0.2.0 bridgesampling_1.0-0
[106] estimability_1.3 data.table_1.12.8 insight_0.8.4 httpuv_1.5.3.1 R6_2.4.1
[111] promises_1.1.0 rio_0.5.16 codetools_0.2-16 boot_1.3-25 colourpicker_1.0
[116] MASS_7.3-53 gtools_3.8.2 assertthat_0.2.1 rprojroot_1.3-2 withr_2.2.0
[121] shinystan_2.5.0 multcomp_1.4-13 mgcv_1.8-33 parallel_4.0.3 hms_0.5.3
[126] grid_4.0.3 coda_0.19-3 minqa_1.2.4 rmarkdown_2.5 git2r_0.27.1
[131] shiny_1.4.0.2 lubridate_1.7.8 base64enc_0.1-3 dygraphs_1.1.1.6